Stuart J. Brown and Lundy M. Lewis
By large-scale manufacturing, we refer to the manufacture of a few large, complex items over a long period of time as opposed to the manufacture of many smaller items during a shorter period of time. For example, more than five years are required to build one ship, whereas thousands of automobiles are built at a single plant during one year. Further, thousands of person-years go into the making of a single ship. As a result of the complexity of large items and the effort and time required to build them, it is inevitable that episodes of atypical problem solving are unknowingly duplicated. This situation results in lost opportunities and less than optimal production costs.