John F. Santore and Stuart C. Shapiro
This paper describes a cognitively motivated computational theory of identifying perceptually indistinguishable objects (PIOs) based on a set of experiments, conducted with human participants, which were designed to identify the knowledge and perceptual cues that people use for this purpose. Identifying a PIO in this context means connecting sensor data from some physical object either to a new mental level symbol or to the correct preexisting one. We discuss the experiments with people, several base and intermediate cases in the identification process and the knowledge that is needed for the general case. A summary of an algorithm for identifying PIOs is included.