Tim Menzies and Bojan Cukic
Test engineers are reluctant to certify AI systems that use nondeterministic search. The standard view in the testing field is that nondeterminism should be avoided at all costs. For example, the SE safety guru Nancy Leveson clearly states "Nondeterminism is the enemy of reliability" (Leveson 1995). This article rejects the pessimism of the test engineers. Contrary to the conventional view, it will be argued that nondeterministic search is a satisfactory method of proving properties. Specifically, the nondeterministic construction of proof trees exhibits certain emergent stable properties. These emergent properties will allow us to rely that, on average, nondeterministic search will adequately probe the reachable parts of a search space.