On Representing Salience and Reference in Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction

Andrew Kehler, Jean-Claude Martin, Adam Cheyer, Luc Julia, Jerry R. Hobbs, and John Bear

We discuss ongoing work investigating how humans interact with multimodal systems, focusing on how successful reference to objects and events is accomplished. We describe an implemented multimodal travel guide application being employed in a set of Wizard of Oz experiments from which data about user interactions is gathered. We offer a preliminary analysis of the data which suggests that, as is evident in Huls et al.’s (1995) more extensive study, the interpretation of referring expressions can be accounted for by a rather simple set of rules which do not make reference to the type of referring expression used. As this result is perhaps unexpected in light of past linguistic research on reference, we suspect that this is not a general result, but instead a product of the simplicity of the tasks around which these multimodal systems have been developed. Thus, more complex systems capable of evoking richer sets of human language and gestural communication need to be developed before conclusions can be drawn about unified representations for salience and reference in multimodal settings.


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