Stephen L. Reed and Douglas B. Lenat
The advent of Web services, and the Semantic Web described by domain ontologies, highlight the bottleneck to their growth: ontology mapping, merging, and integration. In this paper we present the process by which over the last 15 years several ontologies of varying complexity have been mapped or integrated with Cyc, a large commonsense knowledge base. These include SENSUS, FIPS 10-4, several large (300k-term) pharmaceutical thesauri, large portions of WordNet, MeSH/Snomed/UMLS, and the CIA World Factbook. This has to date required trained ontologists talking with subject matter experts. To break that bottleneck -- to enable subject matter experts to directly map/merge/integrate their ontologies -- we have been developing interactive clarification-dialog-based tools.