AAAI Publications, Twenty-Fourth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

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Design and Implementation of Two-level Synchronization for Interactive Music Robot
Takuma Otsuka, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Toru Takahashi, Kazunori Komatani, Tetsuya Ogata, Hiroshi G. Okuno

Last modified: 2010-07-04


Our goal is to develop an interactive music robot, i.e., a robot that presents a musical expression together with humans. A music interaction requires two important functions: synchronization with the music and musical expression, such as singing and dancing. Many instrument-performing robots are only capable of the latter function, they may have difficulty in playing live with human performers. The synchronization function is critical for the interaction. We classify synchronization and musical expression into two levels: (1) the rhythm level and (2) the melody level. Two issues in achieving two-layer synchronization and musical expression are: (1) simultaneous estimation of the rhythm structure and the current part of the music and (2) derivation of the estimation confidence to switch behavior between the rhythm level and the melody level. This paper presents a score following algorithm, incremental audio to score alignment, that conforms to the two-level synchronization design using a particle filter. Our method estimates the score position for the melody level and the tempo for the rhythm level. The reliability of the score position estimation is extracted from the probability distribution of the score position. Experiments are carried out using polyphonic jazz songs. The results confirm that our method switches levels in accordance with the difficulty of the score estimation. When the tempo of the music is less than 120 (beats per minute; bpm), the estimated score positions are accurate and reported; when the tempo is over 120 (bpm), the system tends to report only the tempo to suppress the error in the reported score position predictions.


Robotics; music robot; score following; musical interaction; auditory scene analysis; human-robot interaction