AAAI Publications, Twentieth International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling

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Waking Up a Sleeping Rabbit: On Natural-Language Sentence Generation with FF
Alexander Koller, Joerg Hoffmann

Last modified: 2010-04-20


We present a planning domain that encodes the problem of generating natural language sentences. This domain has a number of features that provoke fairly unusual behavior in planners. In particular, hitherto no existing automated planner was sufficiently effective to be of practical value in this application. We analyze in detail the reasons for ineffectiveness in FF, resulting in a few minor implementation fixes in FF's preprocessor, and in a basic reconfiguration of its search options. The performance of the modified FF is up to several orders of magnitude better than that of the original FF, and for the first time makes automated planners a practical possibility for this application. Beside thus highlighting the importance of preprocessing and automated configuration techniques, we show that the domain still poses several interesting challenges to the development of search heuristics.


Artificial Intelligence; Natural Language Sentence Generation; Automatic Planning

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