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Ordered Epistemic Logic: Semantics, Complexity and Applications

Last modified: 2012-05-17

#### Abstract

Many examples of epistemic reasoning in the literature exhibit a stratified structure: defaults are formulated on top of an incomplete knowledge base. These defaults derive extra information in case information is missing in the knowledge base. In autoepistemic logic, default logic and ASP this inherent stratification is not preserved as they may refer to their own knowledge or logical consequences. Defining the semantics of such logics requires a complex mathematical construction. As an alternative, this paper further develops ordered epistemic logic. This logic extends first order logic with a modal operator and stratification is maintained. This allows us to define an easy to understand semantics. Moreover, inference tasks have a lower complexity than in autoepistemic logic and the logic integrates seamlessly into classical logic and its extensions. In this paper we also propose a generalization of ordered epistemic logic, which we call distributed ordered epistemic logic. We argue that it can provide a semantic foundation for a number of distributed knowledge representation formalisms found in the literature.

#### Keywords

epistemic logics; knowledge representation; answer set programming; default logics; modal logic; ordered epistemic logic; reasoning with different knowledge bases; problem solving in epistemic logic; model generation for epistemic logic

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