Alternative Essences of Intelligence

Rodney A. Brooks, Cynthia Breazeal (Ferrell), Robert Irie, Charles C. Kemp, Matthew Marjanovic, Brian Scassellati, Matthew M. Williamson

We present a novel methodology for building human-like artificially intelligent systems. We take as a model the only existing systems which are universally accepted as intelligent: humans. We emphasize building intelligent systems which are not masters of a single domain, but, like humans, are adept at performing a variety of complex tasks in the real world. Using evidence from cognitive science and neuroscience, we suggest four alternative essences of intelligence to those held by classical AI. These are the parallel themes of development, social interaction, embodiment, and integration. Following a methodology based on these themes, we have built a physical humanoid robot. In this paper we present our methodology and the insights it affords for facilitating learning, simplifying the computation underlying rich behavior, and building systems that can scale to more complex tasks in more challenging environments.

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