AAAI Publications, Twenty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

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The Importance of Cognition and Affect for Artificially Intelligent Decision Makers
Celso M. de Melo, Jonathan Gratch, Peter J. Carnevale

Last modified: 2014-06-19


Agency - the capacity to plan and act - and experience - the capacity to sense and feel - are two critical aspects that determine whether people will perceive non-human entities, such as autonomous agents, to have a mind. There is evidence that the absence of either can reduce cooperation. We present an experiment that tests the necessity of both for cooperation with agents. In this experiment we manipulated people's perceptions about the cognitive and affective abilities of agents, when engaging in the ultimatum game. The results indicated that people offered more money to agents that were perceived to make decisions according to their intentions (high agency), rather than randomly (low agency). Additionally, the results showed that people offered more money to agents that expressed emotion (high experience), when compared to agents that did not (low experience). We discuss the implications of this agency-experience theoretical framework for the design of artificially intelligent decision makers.


Mind Perception; Decision Making; Agency; Experience

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