AAAI Publications, Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

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Extending Analogical Generalization with Near-Misses
Matthew D. McLure, Scott E. Friedman, Kenneth D. Forbus

Last modified: 2015-02-10


Concept learning is a central problem for cognitive systems. Generalization techniques can help organize examples by their commonalities, but comparisons with non-examples, near-misses, can provide discrimination. Early work on near-misses required hand-selected examples by a teacher who understood the learner’s internal representations. This paper introduces Analogical Learning by Integrating Generalization and Near-misses (ALIGN) and describes three key advances. First, domain-general cognitive models of analogical processes are used to handle a wider range of examples. Second, ALIGN’s analogical generalization process constructs multiple probabilistic representations per concept via clustering, and hence can learn disjunctive concepts. Finally, ALIGN uses unsupervised analogical retrieval to find its own near-miss examples. We show that ALIGN out-performs analogical generalization on two perceptual data sets: (1) hand-drawn sketches; and (2) geospatial concepts from strategy-game maps.


analogy; concept learning; near-misses; sketch recognition

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