AAAI Publications, Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference

Font Size: 
Decision Making Styles as Deviation from Rational Action: A Super Mario Case Study
Christoffer Holmgård, Julian Togelius, Georgios N. Yannakakis

Last modified: 2013-11-13


In this paper we describe a method of modeling play styles as deviations from approximations of game theoretically rational actions. These deviations are interpreted as containing information about player skill and player decision making style. We hypothesize that this information is useful for differentiating between players and for understanding why human player behavior is attributed intentionality which we argue is a prerequisite for believability. To investigate these hypotheses we describe an experiment comparing 400 games in the Mario AI Benchmark testbed, played by humans, with equivalent games played by an approximately game theoretically rationally playing AI agent. The player actions’ deviations from the rational agent’s actions are subjected to feature extraction, and the resulting features are used to cluster play sessions into expressions of different play styles. We discuss how these styles differ, and how believable agent behavior might be approached by using these styles as an outset for a planning agent. Finally, we discuss the implications of making assumptions about rational game play and the problematic aspects of inferring player intentions from behavior.


player modeling;decision making;play style

Full Text: PDF