AAAI Publications, Eleventh Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference

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Symbolic Plan Recognition in Interactive Narrative Environments
Rogelio Enrique Cardona-Rivera, Robert Michael Young

Last modified: 2015-09-23


Interactive narratives suffer from the narrative paradox: the tension that exists between providing a coherent narrative experience and allowing a player free reign over what she can manipulate in the environment. Knowing what actions a player in such an environment intends to carry out would help in managing the narrative paradox, since it would allow us to anticipate potential threats to the intended narrative experience and potentially mediate or eliminate them. The process of observing player actions and attempting to come up with an explanation for those actions (i.e. the plan that the player is trying to carry out) is the problem of plan recognition. We adopt the framing of narratives as plans and leverage recent advances that cast plan recognition as planning to develop a symbolic plan recognition system as a proof-of-concept model of a player's reasoning in an interactive narrative environment. In this paper we outline the system architecture, report on performance metrics that demonstrate adequate performance for non-trivial domains, and discuss the implications of treating players as plan recognizers.


interactive narrative; automated planning; plan recognition; player modeling;

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