AAAI Publications, 2010 AAAI Fall Symposium Series

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Cross-Domain Scruffy Inference
Kenneth Charles Arnold, Henry Lieberman

Last modified: 2010-11-03


Reasoning about Commonsense knowledge poses many problems that traditional logical inference doesn't handle well. Among these is cross-domain inference: how to draw on multiple independently produced knowledge bases. Since knowledge bases may not have the same vocabulary, level of detail, or accuracy, that inference should be "scruffy." The AnalogySpace technique showed that a factored inference approach is useful for approximate reasoning over noisy knowledge bases like ConceptNet. A straightforward extension of factored inference to multiple datasets, called Blending, has seen productive use for commonsense reasoning. We show that Blending is a kind of Collective Matrix Factorization (CMF): the factorization spreads out the prediction loss between each dataset. We then show that blending additional data causes the singular vectors to rotate between the two domains, which enables cross-domain inference. We show, in a simplified example, that the maximum interaction occurs when the magnitudes (as defined by the largest singular values) of the two matrices are equal, confirming previous empirical conclusions. Finally, we describe and mathematically justify Bridge Blending, which facilitates inference between datasets by specifically adding knowledge that "bridges" between the two, in terms of CMF.


factored inference; AnalogySpace; Blending

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