AAAI Publications, Thirteenth International Conference on the Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning

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The Winograd Schema Challenge
Hector Levesque, Ernest Davis, Leora Morgenstern

Last modified: 2012-05-17


In this paper, we present an alternative to the Turing Test that has some conceptual and practical advantages. A Winograd schema is a pair of sentences that differ only in one or two words and that contain a referential ambiguity that is resolved in opposite directions in the two sentences. We have compiled a collection of Winograd schemas, designed so that the correct answer is obvious to the human reader, but cannot easily be found using selectional restrictions or statistical techniques over text corpora. A contestant in the Winograd Schema Challenge is presented with a collection of one sentence from each pair, and required to achieve human-level accuracy in choosing the correct disambiguation.


Turing test; natural language understanding; referential ambiguity

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