AAAI Publications, Workshops at the Twenty-Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

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Search in Imperfect Information Games Using Online Monte Carlo Counterfactual Regret Minimization
Marc Lanctot, Viliam Lisy, Michael Bowling

Last modified: 2014-06-18


Online search in games has always been a core interest of artificial intelligence. Advances made in search for perfect information games (such as Chess, Checkers, Go, and Backgammon) have led to AI capable of defeating the world's top human experts. Search in imperfect information games (such as Poker, Bridge, and Skat) is significantly more challenging due to the complexities introduced by hidden information. In this paper, we present Online Outcome Sampling (OOS), the first imperfect information search algorithm that is guaranteed to converge to an equilibrium strategy in two-player zero-sum games. We show that OOS avoids common problems encountered by existing search algorithms and we experimentally evaluate its convergence rate and practical performance against benchmark strategies in Liar's Dice and a variant of Goofspiel. We show that unlike with Information Set Monte Carlo Tree Search (ISMCTS) the exploitability of the strategies produced by OOS decreases as the amount of search time increases. In practice, OOS performs as well as ISMCTS in head-to-head play while producing strategies with lower exploitability given the same search time.


imperfect information; search; monte carlo; counterfactual regret; games

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