Interchanging Agents and Humans in Military Simulation

  • Clinton Heinze
  • Simon Goss
  • Torgny Josefsson
  • Kerry Bennett
  • Sam Waugh
  • Ian Lloyd
  • Graeme Murray
  • John Oldfield


The innovative reapplication of a multiagent system for human-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation was a consequence of appropriate agent-oriented design. The use of intelligent agents for simulating human decision making offers the potential for analysis and design methodologies that do not distinguish between agent and human until implementation. With this as a driver in the design process, the construction of systems in which humans and agents can be interchanged is simplified. Two systems have been constructed and deployed to provide defense analysts with the tools required to advise and assist the Australian Defense Force in the conduct of maritime surveillance and patrol. The experiences gained from this process indicate that it is simpler, both in design and implementation, to add humans to a system designed for intelligent agents than it is to add intelligent agents to a system designed for humans.
How to Cite
Heinze, C., Goss, S., Josefsson, T., Bennett, K., Waugh, S., Lloyd, I., Murray, G., & Oldfield, J. (2002). Interchanging Agents and Humans in Military Simulation. AI Magazine, 23(2), 37.