Shakey: From Conception to History

  • Benjamin Kuipers University of Michigan
  • Edward A. Feigenbaum Stanford University
  • Peter E. Hart Ricoh Innovations
  • Nils J. Nilsson Stanford University


hakey the Robot, conceived fifty years ago, was a seminal contribution to AI. Shakey perceived its world, planned how to achieve a goal, and acted to carry out that plan. This was revolutionary. At the Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, attendees gathered to celebrate Shakey, and to gain insights into how the AI revolution moves ahead. The celebration included a panel, chaired by Benjamin Kuipers and featuring AI pioneers Ed Feigenbaum, Peter Hart, and Nils Nilsson. This article includes written versions of the contributions of those panelists.