Reflections on the First Man versus Machine No-Limit Texas Hold ‘em Competition

  • Sam Ganzfried Carnegie Mellon University


The first human versus computer no-limit Texas hold ‘em competition took place from April 24–May 8, 2015 at River’s Casino in Pittsburgh, PA. In this article I present my thoughts on the competition design, agent architecture, and lessons learned. Several problematic hands from the competition are highlighted that reveal the most glaring weaknesses of the agent. The research underlying the agent is placed within a broader context in the AI research community, and several avenues for future study are mapped out.